Pågående prosjekter

Her gis en innføring i pågående prosjekter som støttes av Antidoping Norge.

“Individual profiles of Human Growth Hormone dependent
markers, an indirect method for detecting use
of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone in sports.”

Cand. Scient Yvette Dehnes, Aker University Hospital, Ass. Prof. Truls Raastad, Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sports Sciences

Om prosjektet: Human Growth Hormone (hGH) acts an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle tissue by increasing the influx of amino acids into the muscle cells, and increasing the speed of the protein synthesis. It is also essential for normal growth and development of different organs and tissues. These properties have made rhGH a common doping agent, even though the ergogenic potential is a matter of discussion.

The current direct method for detecting rhGH has a window of detection of only 24 hours, which consequently limits its effectiveness. A method for rhGH detection using GH-dependent markers such as Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) and Pro-Collagen type 3 Peptide (P-III-P) has been suggested (Wallace et al., 1999). These growth factors have been shown to have a dose dependent response to the administration of rhGH, and to be resistive to the acute effect of physical activity. The problem with this method is however the great inter-individual variance, making it difficult to discriminate between natural variance and doping (Gibney J et al., 2007).  

The problem of large inter-individual variance can potentially be circumvented by using individual values as references, applying the biological profiling idea – similar to blood and testosterone profiles - in the detection of abuse of rhGH.  This project aims to investigate the intra-individual variance and robustness of IGF-1 and P-III-P, exploring the possibilities of using individual profiles as a method for detecting the use of rhGH in Sports. To test whether IGF-1 and P-III-P levels are affected by physical activity in individual profiles, we will study the profiles of markers in top level athletes in periods of rest and after strenuous exercise.

For this purpose, the IGF-1 and P-III-P profiles of four different groups will be collected during 1, 5 years. The groups will consist of 20 power sports athletes, 20 endurance athletes, 10 body builders and a control group of 20 sedentary persons.  


”Mapping the use of controlled substances on a community-wide basis”

Christopher Harman PhD, forsker Norsk Institutt for Vannforskning (NIVA)

Om prosjektet: Conventional drug testing methods for controlled substances within sports is largely based around personal testing of competitors using blood or urine samples. However, questions arise concerning the ability to test frequently enough in order to catch all offences. Furthermore, limited resources prevent adequate testing at intermediate and entry levels of competition and in the wider community as a whole. In this project we propose the application of passive sampling techniques to address these challenges. Such samplers may be placed in waste water systems to passively sample concentration of target chemicals from a defined population over a fixed period of time. The continuous sampling of these methods means that they catch any peaks in the usage and their low  cost applications to test of whole populations. The proposed project aims to map the overall use of controlled steroids within Oslo.


”Regulering av kjerneantall i skjelettmuskel ved bruk av anabole steroider”

Ingrid Egner, doktorgradsstipendiat, IMBV avdeling for fysiologi, Universitetet i Oslo

Om prosjektet: Et velkjent fenomen ved muskelvekst er at det foreligger innsetting av kjerner når en muskelfiber øker i tverrsnitt. Disse kjernene stammer fra satelittcellene (SC) som er lokalisert mellom muskelfibrene og basal lamina. Stridene mot tidligere litteratur har vi ved bruk av helt nye og avanserte molekylære teknikker for identifisering av enkelceller funnet at antallet muskelkjerner forblir uendret selv om skjelettmuskel gjennomgår atrofi i voksne mus. I dette prosjektet ønsker vi å påføre muskel sykluser med hypertrofi og atrofi og studere om den nylig innsatte kjernepopulasjonen er like stabil som den forhenværende med og uten bruk av AS. Vi ønsker også å se om bruk av AS har langtidseffekt i form av et stabilt forhøyet kjerneantall. Dette vil gjøres ved bruk av ulike belastning og immobiliseringsteknikker i mus.


“When motivation goes wrong: Using a motivational approach to understand athlete doping”

Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre, Ph.D Seksjonsleder og førsteamanuensis ved seksjon for coaching og psykologi, Norges Idrettshøgskole (NIH)

Om prosjektet: Motivation is defined as the sum of the forces that initiate, direct and sustain behaviour (Vallerand & Losier, 1999). Deci and Ryan (1985, 2000) suggest that the need for autonomy together with the need for competence and relatedness are fundamental psychological needs human beings seek to satisfy in order to achieve psychological adjustment and personal growth. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 1985, 2000), the perceived level of basic need satisfaction influences individuals in achievement settings to adopt a more or less self-determined motivational style. While numerous studies in achievement contexts (see Deci & Ryan, 2000) have linked high autonomous motivation to higher levels of performance, task perseverance and well-being, low levels of perceived autonomy have been linked to increased feelings of stress, anxiety, and negative self-criticism (Gagné, Ryan, & Bargmann, 2003; Goudas, Biddle, Fox, & Underwood, 1995; Krane, Greenleaf, & Snow, 1997). The aim of this research project is to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the motivational profiles of elite athletes to identify the etiological factors characterizing the possible onset of maladaptive sport participation outcomes, such as the use of performance and recovery enhancing drugs. It is hypothesized that a perceived loss of motivational autonomy will represent an important marker to identify at-risk-athletes and provide national sporting bodies the opportunity to intervene early and avoid doping infractions (Deci & Ryan, 1985).


”Utskillelse av testosteronmetabolitter i urin etter anvendelse av testosteron i forskjellige
applikasjonsformer – En sammenlikning mellom asiatiske og kaukasiske menn”

Ingunn Riise Hullstein Cand.Scient, Overingeniør Norges Laboratorium for DOpinganalyse

Om prosjektet: Forskjell i utskillelse av testosteron? og epitestosteronglukuronid kan knyttes til variasjon i UGT2B17 genet. I asiatisk befolkning er det høy forekomst av en delesjon i dette genet sammenlignet med kaukasisk befolkning. I dette prosjektet skal det undersøkes om variasjon i dette genet også påvirker utskillelse av andre testosteronmetabolitter. Etter anvendelse av testosteron i forskjellige applikasjonsformer (injeksjon, plaster/gel) skal utvalgte
metabolitter bestemmes i urin hos et tilstrekkelig antall menn. En slik endogen steroidprofil skal sammenliknes med en tilsvarende gruppe asiatiske menn som rekrutteres av det WADA?akkrediterte laboratoriet i Beijing. I tillegg til å bestemme testosteronmetabolitter i urin planlegges det å utføre en genetisk karakterisering av det relevante genet i en blodprøve. Etter applikasjon utføres IRMS analyse for å vurdere tidsvinduet for å påvise misbruk av de aktuelle
testosteronpreparatene.